New agreement signed today met objections from Britain and Hungary. Britain was then left out of the agreement, more isolated than ever.
This agreement is a step in the right direction: Tighter unity.
Will it calm investors? We will see today. But I am optimistic.
The greatest achievement of the European Union has been, without a doubt, peace – as British PM Chamberlain naively claimed after Munich in 1938: “Peace in our Time”. And nothing exemplifies this more than the alliance of centuries-old enemies, Germany, France, and Poland in a bid to save United Europe.
During the XVIII century, Poland’s kings did not follow a line of succession but were elected by the nobility and that created weaknesses and internal divisions which were exploited by the countries’ powerful neighbors, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. By the end of the century, the 3 powers carved Poland.
A Polish state, under the name of Duchy of Warsaw was restored by Napoleon I, who also had a Polish mistress, countess Maria Waleska, but with the retreat of the French from eastern Europe in 1813, the Duchy was overrun and erased from the map.
Poland was restored by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, invaded by the Soviet Union in 1920 (the Poles beat the attack with French help at the gates of Warsaw), invaded again by Germany in 1939, and was a battlefield between the retreating Germans and the Soviet army in 1944/45.
After 1945, Poland fell behind the Iron Curtain and then it enthusiastically re-joined Europe after the fall of Communism in 1990.
As a side note, the Polish Communist Party returned to power in free elections and then voted out again after a period of time.